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Young age on starting prostate-specific antigen testing is associated with a greater reduction in prostate cancer mortality: 24-year follow-up of the Göteborg randomized population-based prostate cancer screening trial


The risk of death from prostate cancer (PC) depends on age, but the age at which to start prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening remains uncertain.


To study the relationship between risk reduction for PC mortality and age at first PSA screening.

Design, setting, and participants

The randomized Göteborg-1 trial invited men for biennial PSA screening between the ages of 50 and 70 yr (screening, n = 10 000) or no invitation but exposure to opportunistic PSA testing (control, n = 10 000).


Regular versus opportunistic PSA screening or no PSA.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis

We modeled the nonlinear association between starting age and the absolute risk reduction in PC mortality in three settings: (1) intention-to-screen (randomized arms); (2) historical control (screening group and 1990–1994 registry data); and (3) attendees only (screening attendees and matched controls). We tested whether the effect of screening on PC mortality depends on the age at starting screening by comparing survival models with and without an interaction between trial arm and age (intention-to-screen and attendees only).

Results and limitations

Younger age on starting PSA testing was associated with a greater reduction in PC mortality. Starting screening at age 55 yr approximately halved the risk of PC death compared to first PSA at age 60 yr. The test of association between starting age and the effect of screening on PC mortality was slightly greater than the conventional level of statistical significance (p = 0.052) for the entire cohort, and statistically significant among attendees (p = 0.002). This study is limited by the low number of disease-specific deaths for men starting screening before age 55 yr and the difficulty in discriminating between the effect of starting age and screening duration.


Given that prior screening trials included men aged up to 70 yr on starting screening, our results suggest that the effect size reported in prior trials underestimates that of currently recommended programs starting at age 50–55 yr.