Retzius-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RS-RARP) has been shown to improve continence. However, questions remain regarding feasibility and generalizability of technique and outcomes.
To compare the outcomes of 140 consecutive standard robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (S-RARP) versus RS-RARP.
Design, setting, and participants
A total of 70 S-RARPs were performed followed by 70 RS-RARPs. Demographic, pathologic, and functional outcomes were compared preoperatively and through 12 mo. Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) was used to compare functional outcomes. Logistic and linear regression analyses were utilized to analyze variables associated with EPIC-CP urinary incontinence and overall quality of life (QOL) scores, and oncologic outcomes. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze incontinence at 12 mo.
RS-RARP versus S-RARP.
Patient and tumor characteristics (age, body mass index, prostate-specific antigen, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Gleason group, clinical stage, and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score), perioperative outcomes (console time, estimated blood loss, postoperative complications, and length of stay), oncologic outcomes (positive surgical margin [PSM], and biochemical recurrence), overall and 12-mo continence rates (zero pads and zero to one safety pad), time to continence, potency (erection sufficient for sexual activity), EPIC-CP urinary incontinence, sexual function, and overall QOL scores.
Results and limitations
Median follow-up for S-RARP versus RS-RARP was 46.3 versus 12.3 mo. RS-RARP versus S-RARP had improved overall continence rates at total follow-up (95.7% vs 85.7%, p = 0.042) and 12-mo follow-up (97.6% vs 81.4%, p = 0.002), and faster return to continence (zero to one safety pad, 44 vs 131 d, p < 0.001). RS-RARP EPIC-CP urinary incontinence and overall QOL scores remained significantly better at 12 mo. There were no differences in overall PSM rates, although RS-RARP had lower rates of nonfocal PSMs. There were no differences in sexual function. In multivariate analysis, RS-RARP was significantly associated with improved 12-mo EPIC-CP urinary incontinence and improved QOL scores, but was not associated with PSM or biochemical recurrence. Limitations include retrospective study design and unequal follow-up; however, significantly better RS-RARP continence at 12 mo is striking despite fewer patients attaining 12-mo follow-up.
RS-RARP significantly improves early and long-term continence without compromising oncologic outcomes and leads to overall improved QOL.