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PSA testing patterns in a large Swedish cohort before the implementation of organized PSA testing

  • Anna Pia Enblad,
  • Oskar Bergengren,
  • Ove AndrĂ©n,
  • Anders Larsson,
  • Katja Fall,
  • Eva Johansson,
  • Hans Garmo,
  • Anna Bill-Axelson

Publication: Scandinavian Journal of Urology, July 2020


Organized PSA testing for asymptomatic men aged 50–74 years will be implemented in Sweden to reduce opportunistic testing in groups who will not benefit. The aim of this study was to describe the opportunistic PSA testing patterns in a Swedish region before the implementation of organized PSA testing programs.


We included all men in the Uppsala-Örebro health care region of Sweden who were PSA tested between 1 July 2012 and 30 June 2014. Information regarding previous PSA testing, prostate cancer diagnosis, socioeconomic situation, surgical procedures and prescribed medications were collected from population-wide registries to create the Uppsala–Örebro PSA cohort (UPSAC). The cohort was divided into repeat and single PSA testers. The background population used for comparison consisted of men 40 years or older, living in the Uppsala–Örebro region during this time period.


Of the adult male population in the region, 18.1% had undergone PSA testing. Among men over 85 years old 21% where PSA tested. In our cohort, 62.1% were repeat PSA testers. Of men with a PSA level ≤1µg/l 53.8% had undergone repeat testing. Prostate cancer was found in 2.7% and 4.8% of the repeat and single testers, respectively.


Every fifth man in the male background population was PSA tested. Repeated PSA testing was common despite low PSA values. As repeated PSA testing was common, especially among older men who will not be included in organized testing, special measures to change the testing patterns in this group may be required.