The clinical and fundamental research in prostate cancer – the most common urological cancer in men – is currently entering the proteomic and genomic era. The focus has switched from one single marker (PSA) to panels of biomarkers (including proteins involved in ribosomal function and heat shock proteins). Novel genetic markers (such as Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-ERG fusion gene mRNA) or prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) had already entered the clinical practice, raising the question whether subsequent protein changes impact the evolution of the disease and the response to treatment. Proteomic technologies such as MALDI-MS, SELDI-MS, i-TRAQ allow a qualitative/quantitative analysis of the proteome variations, in both serum and tumor tissue. A new trend in prostate cancer research is proteomic analysis of prostasomes (prostate-specific exosomes), for the discovery of new biomarkers. This paper provides an update of novel clinical tests used in research and clinical diagnostic, as well as of potential tissue or fluid biomarkers provided by extensive proteomic research data.