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External Validation of the European Association of Urology Biochemical Recurrence Risk Groups to Predict Metastasis and Mortality After Radical Prostatectomy in a European Cohort

  • Derya Tilki,
  • Felix Preisser,
  • Markus Graefen,
  • Hartwig Huland,
  • Raisa S. Pompe

Publication: European Urology, April 2019

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2019.03.016

The impact of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical treatment of prostate cancer on oncological outcomes remains unclear. A new European Association of Urology BCR risk stratification (low and high risk) has been proposed. To validate these risk groups, we retrospectively analyzed data for 1125 post-radical prostatectomy (RP) BCR patients (surgery between 1992 and 2006). Univariable Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox regression models with time-dependent covariates were used to test the independent predictor status of the risk grouping on metastatic progression (MP) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). The 5-yr MP-free and PCSM-free survival rates were significantly higher among patients with low BCR risk compared to their high-risk counterparts. In multivariable analyses, the BCR risk grouping reached independent predictor status for MP (hazard ratio [HR] 3.46; p < 0.001) and PCSM (HR 5.12; p < 0.001). Salvage radiation therapy, especially when delivered at prostate-specific antigen <0.5 ng/ml, was highly protective. Our findings corroborate the validity of this novel BCR risk grouping, which is easily applicable in daily practice and could be valuable in decision-making for salvage therapy and clinical trials.

Patient summary
The European Association of Urology grouping for the risk of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy was valid when applied in a European study cohort.