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Detection of clinically significant prostate cancer using targeted biopsy with four cores versus target saturation biopsy with nine cores in transperineal prostate fusion biopsy: A prospective randomized trial

Publication: European Urology Oncology, September 2022


Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and targeted biopsy (TB) facilitate accurate detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPC). However, it remains unclear how targeted cores should be applied for accurate diagnosis of csPC.


To assess csPC detection rates for two target-directed MRI/transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) fusion biopsy approaches, conventional TB and target saturation biopsy (TS).

Design, setting, and participants

This was a prospective single-center study of outcomes for transperineal MRI/TRUS fusion biopsies for 170 men. Half of the men (n = 85) were randomized to conventional TB with four cores per lesion and half (n = 85) to TS with nine cores. Biopsies were performed by three experienced board-certified urologists.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis

PC and csPC (International Society of Urological Pathology grade group ≥2) detection rates for systematic biopsy (SB), TB, and TS were analyzed using McNemar’s test for intrapatient comparisons and Fisher’s exact test for TS versus TB. A combination of targeted biopsy (TS or TB) and SB served as the reference.

Results and limitations

According to the reference, csPC was diagnosed for 57 men in the TS group and 36 men in the TB group. Of these, TS detected 57/57 csPC cases and TB detected 33/36 csPC cases (p = 0.058). Detection of Gleason grade group 1 disease was 10/12 cases with TS and 8/17 cases with TB (p = 0.055). In addition, TS detected 97% of 63 csPC lesions, compared to 86% with TB (p = 0.1). Limitations include the single-center design, the limited generalizability owing to the transperineal biopsy route, the lack of central review of pathology and radical prostatectomy correlation, and uneven distributions of csPC prevalence, Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 5 lesions, men with two or more PI-RADS ≥3 lesions, and prostate-specific antigen density between the groups, which may have affected the results.


In our study, rates of csPC detection did not significantly differ between TS and TB.